[Last s Tuesday, October 1, 2013 16:28


(we're live)





This is the accompanying website for the courses:


The Network Society (0em15, 6 ects)

Innovations in networks and alliance management (0zm05, 5 ects)

Social entrepreneurship (0a150, 3 ects).


first semester 2013/2014

course lecturers: Uwe Matzat, Rudi Bekkers, Gerrit Rooks (0a150 mainly) Chris Snijders (+coordination)

In this course we consider the theory and empirics of innovation and technological change from a network perspective. In what kind of networks can innovation and technological change prosper? The course considers how networks, including personal networks, can hamper or facilitate innovation and technological change, focusing primarily at the meso- and micro level. Innovation processes as well as knowledge and technology spillovers are driven by the interactions between actors such as producers, suppliers, customers, knowledge institutes, and are constrained by institutional arrangements and market structures. Over time, networks between these actors evolve. The shape and structure of these networks affect the ease with which innovation processes and technology spillovers occur and develop.

In this sense, it is not only the characteristics of the actors themselves that drive innovation and technology spillover, but also the way in which the ties between these actors are shaped. The course covers the theories explaining the general effects of networks and applies the theories to several empirical examples, with an emphasis on business networks.

The course follows the schedule outlined below and consists of assignments and an exam at the end. We have tried to be as accurate as possible in the schedule below but some changes might occur based on how the course is evolving along the way.



Papers, slides and lecture notes as supplied on this page and (occasionally, although we will try to keep this to a minimum) during lectures.



Assignment(s) and a written exam, weighed 50% (average of assignments) + 50% (exam). The minimum for each separate assignment and the exam must be at least a 4.0.

Being there

Your attendance, attention, and active participation during lectures is appreciated, and counted on. The material that is being discussed during the lectures is exam material even if not provided on this site.

Please note: presence at the first five lectures for 0a150 students is mandatory.


Exam material The exam material consists of all the literature, slides, and the lecture content, except for the papers explicitly marked "extra". So papers that belong to the assignments are also exam material. The exam is paper-and-pencil, no laptop.

The exam itself will be different for 0em15 vs 0zm05 vs 0a150.

Both 0zm05 and 0em15 have assignments and a written exam. The 0em15 course has an extra assignment, as indicated in the course schedule below. Both 0zm05 and 0em15 have the same exam material though, and that includes the papers on patents that accompanied Bekkers' lectures.

The exam: the first part of the exam will be multiple choice, about 15-20 questions. The second part will be open questions. Part of the open questions can be that you have to manually calculate some network measures on a smaller network (not the hugely complicated network measures, of course). You have 1,5 hour for the exam which we know from experience is usually more than enough.

The 0a150 course has a separate workshop part and no exam, just assignments, but attendance is mandatory for the lectures for the 0a150 students.

Any questions? Give me (CS) an email


Study guide

The table below shows you, on a weekly basis, what you are supposed to do.








Lectures are on Tuesdays, hours 3 and 4 (10:45 - 12:30), Paviljoen J17 during block 1. They are in AUD 4 during block 2.
ALL September 3 CS Intro to the course

If you have not done so, register!


Bookmark the site by Hanneman, and download his "Introduction to social network methods" (download the pdf version). We will not study all chapters in detail, but it provides a useful general background. Read chapters 1-3.


Extra: The link to the 2 minute tutorial

Extra: Lots of stuff about social networks at the International Network of Social Network Analysis, including a comprehensive overview of books on Social Network Analysis.

Extra: the article in Wired that I showed during the lecture.

Try out Christakis' talk on (among others) the obesity data

ALL September 10 CS Small world networks



Many of the issues dealt with in class can be read back in the 2003 paper by Wang & Chen

Read the following papers (and understand the main message) on small world networks:

* Travers and Milgram (1969) An experimental study of the small world problem. Sociometry, 32, 4:425-443.

* Watts and Strogatz (1998) Collective dynamics of small-world networks. Nature, vol 393, 440-442.

* Dodds, Muhamad, Watts (2003) An experimental study of search in global social networks. Science, 301, 827-828. DOI: 10.1126/science.1081058 (when you are interested, have a look at Dodds' technical supplement as well).

A critique on Milgram's six degrees of separation


Think about applications of small world networks to innovation and alliance networks. One such application (more complicated than you need to do actually), is a paper by Hidalgo (=extra material):

Hidalgo (2007) The product space conditions the development of nations. Science 317, 482. DOI 10.1126/science.1144581

Have a look at  Wikipedia on Small worlds.

An experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market

If you want to run the network simulation as in this lecture, download the free NetLogo (choose "Networks" in the models-library)

[Note: someone asked me for some examples that include complexity issues in social network analysis. Actually, this is still a bit vague, as there is so much out there that is about this, ranging from really mathematical to case-studies. For sure the book "Complex social networks" by Vega-Redondo is a good start. Just send me an email is you want some more info.]

ALL September 17 UM The basic network arguments


read (available through the library or Google Scholar):

Granovetter, M. S., "The Strength of Weak Ties" American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360-1980 (1973). [try here]

Coleman, J.S. "Social Capital in the creation of human capital" American Journal of Sociology 94: 95-120 (1988). [try here]

Burt, R. (2001) "Structural Holes versus Network closure as Social Capital, in: Social Capital. Theory and Research, ed. by Lin, N., Cook, K. & Burt, R. [try here]

Read these papers with in the back of your head the idea that you will have to be able to apply similar network arguments to problems of alliance management and innovation science.

ALL September 24 UM From network arguments to network measurements



Hanneman (2005) "Introduction to social network methods":

  • Chapter 6
  • Chapter 9
  • Chapter 10: intro, degree centrality, closeness centrality, summary
  • Chapter 11: intro, cliques, n-cliques, n-clans, summary.


-an example data set: talk01.dl

-the software Ucinet and try it out with the data: import the data, analyse it (structural holes, density, centrality, cliques, etc). Visualize the data set with NetDraw which is part of Ucinet.

-Play around with the data! We expect you to be able to use Ucinet for the assignments. That is, you should be able to do the following with Ucinet:

...to import data
...to conduct data analyses
...to understand and interprete the results
...to export parts of the output into SPSS


Extra (not mandatory): More about the collection of (ego-centered) network data via web surveys (paper).

ALL October 1

GR (10:45)

UM (11:45)

Intro business networks

Assignment 1

slides on personal and business networks

Required reading (make sure not to pay for these downloads):

Dyer & Nobeoka. Creating and managing a high performance knowledge-sharing network: the Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, Vol 21: 345-367

Ahuja. Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly; Sep 2000; 45, 3, pg. 425

Hite & Hesterly. The Evolution of Firm Networks: From Emergence to Early Growth of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Mar., 2001), pp. 275-286

- - -

Assignment 1 and slides in one big zip

After-burner (Oct9, 12:10pm): the network-calculations file that was accidentally missing from the zip



October 8      
only 0A150 October 15 GR


Your personal network (I)

The workshop material

Interesting stuff: take 18 minutes and watch Nicholas Christakes on social networks (TED talk).

[Deadline assignment 1: October 22, 18:00]

only 0A150 October 22 GR


Your personal network (II)

 The workshop material (part 2)
  October 29   no lectures -- exam weeks (not for this course) --
  November 5   no lectures -- exam weeks (not for this course) --

First hour: (feedback on 1st assignment)


Second hour:

0ZM05 and 0EM15 will get their second assignment

November 12 UM / CS   Assignment 1 (general feedback)

Assignment 2

the data (Stata format, should be readable into SPSS too). Some of you had some trouble reading the data into SPSS - not sure why. Try this SAS-formatted file here.

the assignment itself

Suggestions with assignment 2 (the slides)
  November 19


  No class (you work on assignment 2)
0EM15 and 0zm05 November 26



The lecture series continues. There are three papers that you should read (make sure not to pay for any literature):

Bekkers, R., & Martinelli, A. (2012). Knowledge positions in high-tech markets: Trajectories, standards, strategies and true innovators. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(7), 1192-1216. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2012.01.009

Fontana, R., Nuvolari, A., & Verspagen, B. (2009). Mapping technological trajectories as patent citation networks. An application to data communication standards. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 18(4), 311-336. doi:10.1080/10438590801969073

Hummon, N., & Doreian, P. (1989). Connectivity in a citation network: The development of DNA theory. Social Networks, 11(1989), 39-63. doi:10.1016/0378-8733(89)90017-8

The slides that go with the lecture(s)


0EM15 and 0zm05 December 3 RB  

Bekkers' lecture (part 2)


instruction for assignment 3 (0zm05 students can leave at this point)



0EM15 and 0zm05 December 10



[deadline assignment 2 - dec 10!]

tutorial - you can work on your assignment. RB will be available for questions
0EM15 and 0zm05 December 17 RB   tutorial - you can work on your assignment. RB will be available for questions
  December 24   no lecture Merry Christmas ...
  December 31   no lecture ... and a Happy NewYear!
January 7 - no class today -
0zm05 and 0em15 January 14    
Class today:

You get your assignment 2 back + Exam update.
Exam grades can be downloaded here. If you scored less than a 4.0 on your exam, you need to retake it. Your final grade in the administration will be a 4. If you want to have a look at your exam, or if you think some mistake has been made, let us know.